Professor Nikolai Kremenstov is the recipient of the 2018 American Journal of Public Health Paper of the Year Award for his paper “The Promises , Realities, and Legacies of the Bolshevik Revolution, 1917-2017” (American Journal of Public Health. 2017;107(11):1693–1694).
The idealistic Bolsheviks created a universally accessible, integrated, and state-run health care system that focused on prevention and social determinants of health. Even though the system was undermined by underfunding and an unwieldy bureaucracy, the implementation of the program was a major public health experiment. This paper and accompanying editorials in this same issue offer a fascinating history of the program and compares it to others, including Nazi Germany.