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Research interests

My area of specialization is the history and philosophy of the sciences. My interests span the late sixteenth century to the modern period.  The focus of my research is evidence, especially the development of markers concerning the reliability of scientific evidence.

Selected Publications


  • The Creation of Modern Science, Parts One and Two. Toronto: TopHat Publications, 2018
  • Electricity and Magnetism, A Historical Perspective. Greenwood Publications, 2007.
  • (editor) Scientific Revolutions: Primary Texts in the History of Science. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 2003.
  • (editor) History of Modern Science and Mathematics. New York: Charles Scribner’s Press, 2002, 4 volumes.
  • (editor) The Renaissance and the Scientific Revolution: Biographical Portraits.  Scribner’s Science Reference Series. Volume 1. New York: Charles Scribner’s & Sons, 2000.
  • (editor)Picturing Knowledge: Historical and Philosophical Problems Concerning the Use of Art In Science, Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1996.


  • “Going from Evidence to Recommendations: Can GRADE Get Us There?” (with Mat Mercuri and Ross Upshur). Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice.” Forthcoming 24 2018), pp. 1232-1239.
  • “Interpreting Risk as Evidence of Causality: Lessons Learned from a Legal Case to Determine Medical Malpractice” (with Mat Mercuri). Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, volume 22 (2016), pp. 515-521.
  • “The New Science: Kepler, Galileo, and Mersenne.” In Steven Nadler, ed., A Companion to Early Modern Philosophy.  London: Blackwell’s. 2002, pp. 45-59.
  • Galileo’s Lunar Landscapes.” Optics and Photonics News. Published by the Optical Society of America 12 (2001), 32-36.
  • “The Scientific Life of the Camera Obscura.”  Optics and Photonics News. Published by Optical Society of America. 11 (2000), 18-21.
  • “Rapid Discovery, Cross-Breeding Networks, and the Scientific Revolution.”  Philosophy of the Social Sciences30 (2000), 257-273.
  • “Descartes and la grande méchanique de la nature.” In B. Baigrie, ed., Picturing Knowledge: Historical and Philosophical Problems Concerning The Use of Art In Science.  Toronto: The University of Toronto Press, 1996, pp. 87-133.
  • “Scientific Practice: The View from the Tabletop.” In J. Buchwald, ed., Scientific Practice: Theories and Stories of Doing Physics.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995, pp. 87-122.
  • “The Vortex Theory of Planetary Motion, 1687-1713: Empirical Difficulties and Guiding Assumptions.” In A. Donovan, L. Laudan, and R. Laudan, eds., Scrutinizing Science.  Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1988, pp. 85-102.
  • “On Consensus and Stability in Science” (with J. N. Hattiangadi), The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science43 (1992), 435-58.
  • “A Reappraisal of Duhem’s Conception of Scientific Progress.”  Revue Inter­national de Philosophie182 (1992), 344-360.
  • “Relativism, Truth and Progress.”  Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, Series V, Volume IV (1990), 9-19.
  • “The Justification of Kepler’s Ellipse.” Studies in History and Philosophy of Science21 (1990), 633-664.
  • “Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion, Before and After Newton’s Principia: An Essay on the Transformation of Scientific Problems,”Studies in History and Philosophy of Science18 (1987), 177-208.

PhD Supervisions:

Andris Krumins: “Symmetry, Conservation Laws, and Theoretical Particle Physics (1918-1979)”, January 28, 1999.

Jill Lazenby: “Climates of Collaboration: Interdisciplinary Science and the Social Identity Perspective.”  November 1, 2002.

Katherine Wright: “Being Human in Post-War American Thought and Culture: A History from the Cybernetic Perspective” April 23 2003.

Jenene Wiedemer, ”Anesthesia and Entertainment: Nitrous Oxide in Nineteenth Century America.”  January 30, 2006.

Brooke Abounader, “Models and Modelling in the Physical Sciences,” August 26, 2013.

Hakob Barseghyan, “A Theory of Scientific Change.” September 17, 2013.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Dec. 9, 2014. “Incommensurability Revisited.”



Contact Information

  • Title: Associate Professor and Director of Graduate Studies
  • Research Area: Philosophy of Science; Early Modern Natural Philosophy
  • Location: VC 320
  • Telephone number: +1 (416) 978–1750
  • E-mail address: baigrie@chass.utoronto.ca

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