In this seminar course, we will study how scientific theories and methods of their evaluation change through time. To examine the mechanism of scientific change, we will focus on various aspects of scientific change, such as theory acceptance, method employment, scientific inertia and compatibility, underdeterminism, splitting and merging of scientific mosaics, the role of sociocultural factors and methodologies, etc. We will proceed axiomatically: the theorems of the theory will be deduced from the four axioms – the four laws of scientific change. All axioms and theorems will be illustrated by means of examples from different periods of the history of science. You may choose to write a theoretical essay, in which case you will be expected to discuss, criticise, or amend some parts of the theory. Alternatively, you may choose to write a historical essay by applying the laws of scientific change to a certain historical episode.