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This course explores the transformation of physical science from Newton’s Principia to the emergence of classical mechanics, embodied in Pierre Simon Laplace’s Celestial Mechanics, in the nineteenth century. The focus is displaced from the scientific giant, Newton, to those after him. We will examine the major theoretical, empirical, and mathematical issues involved in this transformation, and the philosophical and pragmatic implications of these issues. We will also situate this transformation in the social, cultural, and political contexts of contemporary Europe, such as Enlightenment, civil society, the Industrial Revolution, and overseas exploration.


Course Information

  • Course Code: HPS4101H
  • Course Delivery: On Campus
  • Course Credits: 0.5 cc